**MR Physics for
Physicists
**Klaus Scheffler, Peter Boernert, Michael H. Buonocore, Organizers

Saturday and Sunday, May 6 and 7

**Overview:**

This two-day course focuses on the latest physical theories and experiments, and
will provide a sound basis for understanding the technical presentations at the
Scientific Meeting. A broad range of scientific topics will be covered in the
course, including the origin and basic properties of the MRI signal, molecular
imaging physics, theories of magnetization relaxation, the physics of fast
imaging, advanced methods for image reconstruction, special pulse sequences and
processing methods for motion quantification, and the physics of high field
imaging. The section on the physics of fast imaging will include talks on pulse
sequence design, RF excitation, spatial encoding, dynamic equilibrium, and the
theory and practical considerations in determining image signal-to-noise ratio.
The section on image reconstruction will include talks on the methods of
gridding, reconstruction for multi-coil acquisition, and methods for spatial and
temporal interpolation. The section on the physics of high field imaging will
include talks on optimized pulse sequences for high field imaging, multi-coil
excitation, and the physics of MRI safety at high field.

**Educational Objectives:**

Upon completion of this course, participants should be able to:

• Starting from first principles in quantum mechanics, describe and derive the
two-component Schrödinger equation, the equations for thermal equilibrium, the
Bloch equation for magnetization dynamics, the magnetization relaxation terms T1
and T2, and explain the conclusion that the current induced in the MRI coil is a
measure of the expectation value of the magnetic moment of the nuclear spins;

• Describe the physics of alternate mechanisms for spin polarization, as used in
hyperpolarized molecular imaging; also describe pulse sequence strategies for
imaging hyperpolarized elements, and the contrast mechanisms in molecular
imaging;

• Explain the basic quantum mechanical and semi-classical theory of relaxation,
and the processes of relaxation of water protons that occur in tissues and
result in image contrast;

• Summarize the physical processes, pulse sequences and other technical
innovations used in fast imaging, such as those required for selective
excitation, spatial encoding, magnetization dynamic manipulation for desired
image contrast, as well as theory and methods for calculating actual and
theoretical limits of image signal to noise ratio;

• Describe advanced image reconstruction methods based on gridding for
non-Cartesian k-space trajectories, including methods using coil sensitivity
functions for parallel imaging, and methods using generalized temporal and
spatial correlations;

• Describe special MRI pulse sequences and processing methods used for spatial
mapping and quantification of tissue motion;

• Explain physical phenomena and specific innovations that are important for
clinical imaging at high field strengths (>= 3T), including those related to MRI
safety at high field, optimized pulse sequences, and other technical challenges.

**Audience Description:**

This course is designed for new Ph.D.’s joining the MRI scientific community,
and those already established, who wish to learn the physics, chemistry,
engineering, mathematics, and computer science of MRI at a rigorous and advanced
quantitative level, and who are interested in obtaining rigorous quantitative
descriptions of MRI topics. The descriptions given will reflect the backgrounds
and perspectives of mathematical physicists, physical chemists, and engineers.
This course is designed for Ph.D. candidates in physics, chemistry, engineering,
applied mathematics and computer science, as well as Ph.D. postgraduates in
these fields. It is also suited to established MR physicists, chemists,
engineers, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and physicians who have
several years of direct experience performing human MRI and/or
biochemical/biological experiments, and/or MRI technology research and
development.

SATURDAY, 6 MAY | ||||

I Origins and Basic Properties of the MRI Signal | ||||

08:30 |
Origins of the Equations of Magnetization
Dynamics |
Michael H. Buonocore, M.D., Ph.D. | ||

09:10 | Numerical Implementation of the Bloch Equation to Simulate | Hugues Benoit-Cattin, Ph.D. | ||

Magnetization Dynamics and Imaging | ||||

II Molecular Imaging Physiscs | ||||

09:50 | Alternate Mechanisms for Spin Polarization | Bastiaan Driehuys, Ph.D. | ||

10:30 | Break - Meet the Teachers | |||

10:50 | Imaging Strategies for Hyperpolarized Elements and Molecules | John P. Mugler, III, Ph.D. | ||

11:30 | Contrast Mechanisms in Molecular Imaging | Robert N. Muller, Ph.D. | ||

12:10 | Break | |||

12:10 - 12:30 Meet the Teachers | ||||

III Signal Relaxation | ||||

13:30 | Quantum Mechanical and Semi-Classical Theory of Relaxation | Valerij G. Kiselev, Ph.D. | ||

14:10 | Relaxation and Contrast Mechanisms in Living Tissue | Greg J. Stanisz | ||

IV Physics of Fast Imaging | ||||

14:50 | Fast SE/TSE/RARE, Refocusing with Low Flip Angle Pulses | Klaus Scheffler, Ph.D. | ||

15:30 | Break - Meet the Teachers | |||

15:50 | Fast Gradient Echo Including SSFP | Brian A. Hargreaves, Ph.D. | ||

16:30 | Pulse Sequence Design for EPI and Non-Cartesian Sampling | Craig H. Meyer, Ph.D. | ||

17:10 | Limits of SNR and Practical Consequences | Klaas Pruessmann, Ph.D. | ||

17:50 - 18:00 - Meet the Teachers | ||||

SUNDAY, 7 MAY | ||||

V Pulse Sequences and Processing Methods for Motion Quantification | ||||

08:10 | MR Elastography | Ralph Sinkus, Ph.D. | ||

08:45 | Velocity Encoding and Flow Imaging | Michael Markl, Ph.D. | ||

VI Image Reconstruction | ||||

09:20 | Gridding for Non-Cartesian K-Space Sampling | James G. Pipe, Ph.D. | ||

09:55 | Reconstruction for Multi-Coil Acquisition | David J. Larkman, Ph.D. | ||

10:30 | Break - Meet the Teachers | |||

10:50 | Generalized Spatial and Temporal Interpolation, Limited | Bruno Madore, Ph.D. | ||

Data Reconstruction | ||||

VII Physics of High Field Imaging | ||||

11:25 | Overview of the Technical Challenges | Paul R. Harvey, Ph.D. | ||

12:00 | Optimized Pulse Sequences at High Field | Oliver Speck, Ph.D. | ||

12:35 | Break | |||

12:35 - 12:45 - Meet the Teachers | ||||

13:50 | Principles of Parallel Transmission | Peter Börnert, Ph.D. | ||

14:25 | Physical Principles for the Assessment of MRI Safety at High Field | Hans Engels, Ph.D. | ||

15:00 - 15:15 - Meet the Teachers |